As others have stated. Companies are required by OSHA standards or approved state safety programs to provide employees with the required PPE based on the hazards associated with the work being completed. This can be done by either giving you the PPE or reimbursing you for purchasing the equipment. They only need to do this once. So if you lose your PPE or it is damaged by neglect, you may be responsible for replacing it. The disciplinary actions taken by a company for failure to use required PPE varies by company policies. If the failure involves an immediate danger to life or health such as not wearing fall protection equipment when working from heights, it could result in immediate termination. Companies should have their disciplinary policies documented in writing and provide these to all employees to reduce any liability risk associated with taking the actions. Most union operations will have a progressive disciplinary process in place starting with written warnings and ending with termination.
It is recommend you have your own PPE. In any case where your employer has a job where you need PPE. They are required to provide the need PPE. Or request you provide your own. If your fail to use the proper PPE. You most likely wil get a verbal or writen warning. After that you can be terminted. For failure to use proper PPE. If your on a job site and OSHA comes. They will fine you and your boss. There are a good amout of jobsites that will send you home if you dont have the correct equipment. Most foremen will have a meeting and list of PPE prior to the jobs start date and weekly if not daily around safety.
Your employer is required by OSHA to provide certain PPE. You can go to the OSHA website to see a list of what will be provided. If you fail to wear the PPE, you could become injured or worse. Most employers have a discipline policy to encourage employees to properly wear their PPE.