This varies depending on the company's human resources policies. This information may not be made available to you prior to the issuance of an offer letter. However, generally there is a fixed number of vacation days (or hours) depending on your level at the company (generally increases on an annual basis as you move up in the company. In recent years, a lot of companies have adopted an "unlimited sick days" policy. A lot of people tend to abuse this policy and use a "sick day" in place if vacation as to not decrease their available vacation balance. Be aware and be careful as the company can track sick day usage and may ask questions if they are led to believe someone is abusing the policy. Hope this helps!
There is no guide book for this question as it varies company to company. I would strongly suggest reaching out to your HR business partner and or requesting a copy of the company employee handbook. This should provide you with the right answer.
It varies based on your company and their Human Resources policy. I would recommended checking your employee handbook or contacting the local HR department to understand your specific policy. In general though, try to be a responsible employee and minimize warnings and tell your supervisor if/when you need to miss a day of work.