SLPs can work in many settings. Schools are a major part of SLP employment as SLPs are needed from early intervention (very young children) through high school. SLPs work in private practice in the case that someone wants pursue treatment. SLPs can work in multiple medical settings from assisted living facilities, long term care, skilled nursing (rehab), LTACHs (lower level hospitals; think Madonna Rehab Hospital), and full scale hospitals. Hope this answers your question.
There are opportunities in the schools, inpatient rehab, outpatient rehab, ENT clinics, VA hospitals, skilled nursing facilities, home health, etc. The list goes on. And you can work with any age range from infancy up to end of life care. If you would like more information about the profession I would recommend going to asha.org to get more insight into this field.