It depends on what type of pilot you want to become. A private pilot license only requires flight school - no degrees required. This is a FAA regulated license and you can get more information on the FAA.gov website. From there you can get various ratings that allow you to fly in different conditions, types of planes/engine, with passengers, etc. As an airline pilot you will need to get your commercial rating and depending on the operator they will require a minimum number of flight hours. Before you can be a captain. Airline pilots typically were ex military because they had the most hours ( it can get pretty expensive as a civilian), but now you there are other routes that one can take such as flying cargo or regionals to rack up the flight hours before applying to a major carrier. There are schools that will offer a bachelors along with you pilots license and The degree will make you a better candidate so it is recommended to go to college and get the degree. Check out Embry Riddle to see a curriculum of what their program entails.
In order to be an airline pilot at a major airline, you will need a college degree. Embry Riddle is a good school, but also very expensive. There are a number of colleges and universities that offer aviation programs that are more affordable. Most airline pilots now are not from the military. In the past, they were.