If you get a degree in Pharmacy, can you also conduct drug testing, manufacturing, and/or research?
You can do research if you want to, you just have to apply for job with a pharmaceuticals company that do that, or any jobs that want the knowledges/ expertise of a pharmacists, you can also work at hospitals or doing research at hospitals you work at, it depend where you work and what position you are applying for
You can do research if you like but a pharmaceutical science degree is more suited for that than a becoming a pharmacist. You need a strong chemistry and biology background for research which you really don't get in the typical Pharm D program. Pharmacists do work in the pharmaceutical industry typically as medical liaisons presenting data to insurance companies and hospital pharmacies. Their are also a few other roles they hold in industry.
I managed to secure a scientist job in a pharmaceutical company in my home town working on oral solid dosage forms. While working I applied for a masters degree that was more focused on drug development and offered a broader perspective on the industry. I even worked as a part time pharmacist for a while. A few years later I moved to England for a different job working on inhalation products and now I work on lyophilizates. Each job felt like starting form zero and I like that. I like a challenge and constantly evolving and learning new things.
It is important to take a look inside and as you gain more experience check within what you like and what you don't and choose a job that is closer to your preferences. Some people along the way may tell you that one thing is better than the other. That's not true. Only you know what's best for you in the moment and that will change as you evolve. You may like the security and the familiarity of a job, you may like to be knowledgeable in a certain field, you may prefer to be self employed at some point or even to change your career altogether. All you need to know is that anything you choose is alright and you are perfect and enough regardless of your choices.