Pharmacists must pay attention to detail, ensuring the accuracy of the prescriptions they fill.
Pharmacists must have a Doctor of Pharmacy (Pharm.D.) degree from an accredited pharmacy program. They must also be licensed, which requires passing licensure and law exams.
Pharmacists typically need a Doctor of Pharmacy (Pharm.D.) degree that includes healthcare and related courses, such as biology, chemistry, and physics. Programs are accredited by an organization such as the Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education (ACPE).
Admissions requirements vary by program, however, all Pharm.D. programs require applicants to take postsecondary courses such as chemistry, biology, and physics. Most programs require at least 2 years of undergraduate study, although some require a bachelor’s degree. Most programs also require applicants to take the Pharmacy College Admissions Test (PCAT).
Pharm.D. programs usually take 4 years to finish, although some programs offer a 3-year option. Some schools admit high school graduates into a 6-year program. A Pharm.D. program includes courses in chemistry, pharmacology, and medical ethics. Students also complete supervised work experiences, sometimes referred to as internships, in different settings such as hospitals and retail pharmacies.
Some pharmacists who own their own pharmacy may choose to get a master’s degree in business administration (MBA) in addition to their Pharm.D. degree. Others may get a degree in public health.
Pharmacists also must take continuing education courses throughout their career to keep up with the latest advances in pharmacological science.
Following graduation from a Pharm.D. program, pharmacists seeking an advanced position, such as a clinical pharmacy or research job, may need to complete a 1- to 2-year residency. Pharmacists who choose to complete the 2-year residency option receive additional training in a specialty area such as internal medicine or geriatric care.
Licenses, Certifications, and Registrations
All states license pharmacists. After they finish the Pharm.D. program, prospective pharmacists must pass two exams to get a license. The North American Pharmacist Licensure Exam (NAPLEX) tests pharmacy skills and knowledge. The Multistate Pharmacy Jurisprudence Exam (MPJE) or a state-specific test on pharmacy law is also required. Applicants also must complete a number of hours as an intern, which varies by state.
Pharmacists who administer vaccinations and immunizations need to be certified in most states. States typically use the American Pharmacists Association’s Pharmacy-Based Immunization Delivery program as a qualification for certification.
Pharmacists also may choose to earn a certification to show their advanced level of knowledge in a certain area. For instance, a pharmacist may become a Certified Diabetes Educator, a qualification offered by the National Certification Board for Diabetes Educators, or earn certification in a specialty area, such as nutrition or oncology, from the Board of Pharmacy Specialties. Certifications from both organizations require pharmacists to have varying degrees of work experience, to pass an exam, and pay a fee.
Analytical skills. Pharmacists must provide safe medications efficiently. To do this, they must be able to evaluate a patient’s needs and the prescriber’s orders, and have extensive knowledge of the effects and appropriate circumstances for giving out a specific medication.
Communication skills. Pharmacists frequently offer advice to patients. They might need to explain how to take medicine, for example, and what its side effects are. They also need to offer clear direction to pharmacy technicians and interns.
Computer skills. Pharmacists need computer skills in order to use any electronic health record (EHR) systems that their organization has adopted.
Detail oriented. Pharmacists are responsible for ensuring the accuracy of the prescriptions they fill. They must be able to find the information that they need to make decisions about what medications are appropriate for each patient, because improper use of medication can pose serious health risks.
Managerial skills. Pharmacists—particularly those who run a retail pharmacy—must have good managerial skills, including the ability to manage inventory and oversee a staff.
Mr. Oller gave you a great answer with a lot of good info. For most high school graduates, it will take 6 years to become a pharmacist and the degree you earn is a Doctor of Pharmacy, Pharm.D, degree. As much as I personally love being a pharmacist, and have found many rewarding opportunities within this field, the profession has changed considerably in the 20 years since I graduated. Even when I was in pharmacy school there was a lot of discussion and focus on direct patient care opportunities and the wide-range of opportunities open to pharmacists. While this is technically true, the harsh reality is these "alternative" positions are much harder to acquire and thus, the vast majority of pharmacists will work in a community/retail pharmacy and/or a hospital pharmacy. To obtain one of these "alternative" positions will require a residency, BCPS certification and/or other advanced training. Also, at present, in many parts of the country there are more pharmacists than there are pharmacy job openings so finding any job can be challenge. The outlook from the Bureau of Labor and Statistics show the profession shrinking over the next 10 years: https://www.bls.gov/ooh/healthcare/pharmacists.htm. I say this as food for thought b/c after spending 6 years in college, potentially acquiring $200K+ in student loans, not being able to find a job is not a great position to be in. I hate to steer anyone away from a career in pharmacy b/c I do love the profession and my colleagues but I think it's wise to go in "eyes wide open" rather than find out years from now you have a lot of debt and can't find a job.
This is a ngreat site to get more information on pharmacy schools and career opportunities: https://pharmacyforme.org/