In general, as an international student, you will have 60 days after graduation to either enroll in another college program for further studies or enroll in an OPT (Optional Practical Training) program to gain employment after you graduate from college on an F-1 visa. If this does not take place within 60 days, you will have to leave the US.
The OPT program allows you to extend your F-1 visa status for a year while you work, train, or intern in your area of study. Applying for an OPT program can take several months, so you should apply several months before graduation.
If you want to stay in the US for a longer period, you will need a company to sponsor you for an H-1b non-immigrant visa. This visa will allow you to remain employed at that company for three years.
Finding a company that will sponsor you for an H-1b visa can be challenging, so the best advice is to start this process early and do as much research as possible.
If you are referring to the students who are no US citizen and studying in their country, best options are 1) find a job in MNC in that country or companies who has presence in US and that country, depend upon job needs and opportunities, there may be a chance that that company can send on work visa someday. 2) Get good GRE and TOEFL score, get an admission in US College and come to US on F-1 Visa for study and then fins a job as per process mentioned above.
Links to USCIS Permanent Workers and Temporary Workers Visa process.
Hope this helps!!
1. Complete undergraduate program and apply for grad school in US with GRE and TOEFL
2. Get involved in internships as a part of the graduate program and then get work-authorization to transition to a full-time employee after graduation.
3. Work in a multi-national company in your country and then try an internal transfer