Second 2 years of medical school are more oriented to patient care. During clinic or hospital rounds you will evaluate patients and report your findings to residents or attending physicians. If you are on a surgical rotation, you can scrub in to the cases but will mainly observe and learn. They will then critique your evaluation and teach you relevant information. There are occasional lectures. You will have to study textbooks on your own time
During resisdency, the clinic and hospital rounds occupy a majority of your day. If you choose a surgical speciality you will continue to scrub in and be given more and more duties as your skill progresses. Studying will now be oriented more toward reading research articles. Taking call means spending all night in hospital working with occasional cat naps between cases.