Here are a few ways that jobs are commonly categorized:
Type of company e.g. Commercial Bank, Investment Bank or Hedge fund: https://www.investopedia.com/articles/financial-careers/08/financial-career-options-professionals.asp
Front office v back office: https://www.allaboutcareers.com/careers-advice/looking-for-a-job/front-office-back-office-what-is-the-difference
Buy side v sell side: https://www.investopedia.com/articles/financialcareers/11/sell-side-buy-side-analysts.asp
There is lots more information the internet - learning to use Google well will take you far.
If making the most money possible is your goal, the typical path would be becoming an investment banker after college, then moving into private equity or hedge funds after a few years. That said, I would encourage you to explore what career path might be the best fit for you before focusing on compensation. Almost any job in finance in the US will pay enough for you to live comfortably, and the highest paying jobs tend to be the most time consuming and stressful.