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Human factors and ergonomics is concerned with interactions among people and systems. It's a very broad field addressing physical, cognitive, and organizational interactions and people tend to specialize in certain areas (i.e. you can focus on the cognitive and behavioral aspects of interest to you). There is some basic human factors research, but mostly it is an applied field; that is, using the knowledge to improve the design of a product, help an organization run more effectively, etc. There are opportunities in many industries such as consumer products, aerospace, healthcare, automotive, and more.
User experience is generally considered to be a sub-field of human factors. It is most often used in the design of consumer products, especially software and apps, but can be applied to any product, system, or service. In addition to traditional human factors concerns, UX researchers seek to understand broader user emotions and attitudes that affect perception and satisfaction. Improving the user's experience is important for companies that want to achieve long-term brand loyalty and growth.
Behavioral economics studies how culture, emotional, and psychological factors affect the way people make decisions. Many governments and non-governmental organizations use behavioral economics to try to address issues in the world. A concept that has been popular recently is the "nudge unit", a group which uses psychological principles to influence choices without coercion, such as getting people to eat healthier, pay their taxes, save more money, etc. More traditionally, it involves conducting experiments to study economic and psychological factors and applying research insights to the design of social and economic systems.
These fields aren't typically the first things that come to mind when we think about psychology, but they all have a significant psychological aspect with opportunities for people to apply an understanding of human psychology.
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