I can only give you an answer for this question based on my experience as an oncology NP and as a patient in South LA. Primary physicians, internists, oncologists, palliative care physicians and pediatricians are the doctors that I most often see spending a lot of time with the patient. Ironically, when accompanying a friend to a psychiatrist appointment, I was shocked that she was in there for about 10 minutes every visit and it was for prescriptions only. Hopefully, there are others that do spend more time with their patients. The ones I see spend the least time with patients are generally pathologists, anesthesiologists, surgeons and radiologists. There are many specialties where the doctors fit somewhere in between. My gynecologist and GI doc spend plenty of time with me and during pregnancy (many years ago!) even more time was spent with me despite that these doctors do many procedures/surgeries where the patient is under sedation.
In full disclosure, I have two close relatives that are MD's. One is a retired pathologist and never saw live patients and the other is a psychiatrist on an inpatient forensic unit in a state hospital that spends all his time with his patients. Hope this is helpful.