or construction, engineering, garbage collectors, politics, law? I think perhaps you are too narrowly focused on protective services. Women have made major in-roads in the fields just mentioned. Perhaps the shift work, or the nature of the job, just does not appeal to that many women. I know that when I was in law enforcement, women did not stay long, and, I noticed a trend where many of them went into healthcare (rules out the shift-work theory, huh?). Is it so wrong to recognize that many (not all) women are in fact driven by a maternal/nurturing instinct and perhaps want nothing to do with chases, burning buildings, and playing with lights and sirens? We should be asking the flip question: How can we get more men into social services, teaching, and nursing? Perhaps when little boys see role models in traditionally female jobs, and little girls see role models in traditionally male jobs, things might start to change. It's a slow process.