Good question, and you've already had some helpful answers. I would say you might want to look at what each option offers you. I studied art in a college and after college in an art school. Here are my thoughts.
In a college setting, you would be exposed to a more general education. Schools often have requirements that you take classes in other fields, with the purpose to give you a well rounded education. So, even if you are an art major, you might have to take other classes in say, English, or history or science. Each college has different requirements, so check them out. Remember, art is not just about skills, it is also about developing ideas. Learning ideas from other fields and getting know other students in other fields might be good for your art in the long run. College might be a good choice, in case you don't think your art career hopes will pan out, or if you change your mind in terms of your commitment to art.
In an art school setting, you would have a more focused education on art. You would probably have the opportunity to develop your skills and interests in a more in-depth way than in a college setting. You would meet other young artists, which has its advantages in emotional support. (Art school can be tough!). Some art schools might also require you to take classes in other fields, but some art schools just focus on art, so check them out.
I hope this helps. So, you need to look at colleges and art schools you are interested in. You might want to think about the type of art you want to focus on. You mentioned charcoal drawing and other media, and that tells me you are interested in the fine arts, rather than computer graphics or graphic design, or other areas. Talk to your current art teachers, or research art careers at your local library or career center. Having a goal for your art, say being a graphic designer, or being a fine artists, will also help you focus on what type of school you want to attend.