I'm a new grad who recently entered the working field and I definitely understand your concerns about college and the possible future with a computer science degree.
Based on what I've personally experienced, freshman year is when you begin to explore computer science as a whole on the surface, explore the opportunities that may come out of learning this skill, and getting to know your environment in college in general. It'll be a little overwhelming and with that said, freshman year internships are hard to come by. This is partly also because you are vying for opportunities that are looking for rather experienced (at maybe junior/ senior year level) college students (unless of course you have prior experience then this would be subjective). What I recommend is that you put equal energy into honing your skills and finding your specific interest within computer science as that is something recruiters would like to know too. This means things like summer bootcamps or hackathons would be a perfect opportunity for this.
When sophomore year comes around, this is usually when what you've learned outside of your typical curriculum/ classes would set you apart from your peers within the same year vying for an internship too. There is definitely a higher chance of scoring an internship during this year than freshman year, but the chances are still quite low as compared to when you're in your junior/ senior year (based on what I've seen). If recruiters find that you stand out with the extra skills and projects you've achieved outside of the classroom, chances are you'd quickly score an interview with them. Summer bootcamps or hackathons are still perfect opportunities to participate in if you could during this year.
Junior and Senior would be the perfect time to start looking for an internship because your experience during this time correlates to you getting a full-time offer when you graduate. This is also when college students start shifting their focus from honing their skills as a programmer to getting experience working on real-time projects with impact. Ideally, you should also know what you're interested in within computer science which would help you search for job opportunities and interviews.
This was a lengthy answer but I hope it brought light to your questions on what kind of internships and when to start.