I have been a graphic designer for almost a decade now. I got a BA in Art + Design and although I didn't specifically learn graphic design in college, I was able to complete a couple internships during school that helped me learn on the job. Afterwards I worked a few short-term contract positions using a recruiting company and continued to build my skills and portfolio. Eventually I found a startup that paid me full-time, and have been working full-time ever since.
Building a portfolio is very important as it shows future employers what you're capable of and how yours skills would fit well into their company's needs. Most people just have a website where they display their best work. I use Squarespace as it's not too expensive, comes with a domain name, and you don't have to worry about knowing how to code in order to make your site look professional. If you don't have any professional experience to reference, find businesses you would be interested in working for and try to emulate their design while putting your own style on it.
Networking events were also very helpful when I was just starting out after graduating. Even if you don't find a company looking for a designer while you're there, it gives you an opportunity to put yourself out there to people who may know someone who needs graphic design help. It also allows you to practice pitching your skills so you'll have experience doing so before you have an interview.
Hope this was helpful!
I'd love to answer your question directly but can't because my work as a graphic designer was more than forty years ago and I'm sure things are very different now. But I can speak to your word "process" because every artist has that same general path. Here's some things to consider: 1.) Every day that passes is an opportunity to expand your portfolio and there is nothing more important. So don't go one day without creating art. 2.) Every day is an opportunity to learn and expand your skill. You don't know what you don't know. That's why art schooling is essential. It will push you to uncover new concepts and skills developed by artists who precede you. 3.) Be broad in your scope. When I was in commercial art school there were no computers. We learned about color by mixing paint; we learned about typography by drawing and painting an endless selection of fonts. We learned about 3D by literally building structures out of wood. I could go on but you get the idea. 4.) If possible, be picky about your choice of art schools. Do research on their programs and faculty. My sister majored in design at an expensive university that had a weak art department and got lousy training. I went to a small college with a huge reputation in graphic arts and got fabulous training at a fraction of the tuition cost she paid to her school. 5.) Be bold. Let your passion for your art lead you to the EDGE of discovery. I wish you the best of luck.