Look into volunteering at organic or community farms. People you meet there will have a wealth of information and are often willing to share seeds and other supplies. Community colleges often have a horticulture program.
Wow! I honestly don't know the answer to this! However, I would definitely start by learning about canning and freezing, so I would be able to properly save that which I raised, rather than let it go to waste!
You would probably want to study organic gardening. I remember reading about how some plants are natural insect repellants, and people would plant them near their crops, but I don't recall which ones they were! If you are in a city, look into local community garden programs, where I'm sure you would find a wealth of knowledge. Some states have an Agricultural Extension program that also offers support.
When it comes to planting, in general, you want to pick the right plants for your area, and plant them in the right conditions: soil, sun, shade, watering frequency, drainage, etc. Healthy plants resist diseases and insects. You will need to pay attention to soil nutrients, and also look into rotation of crops from year to year.
Gardening is very rewarding work, both physically and emotionally. I wish you the best!
First pick yourself up a heat zone of the U.S. certain areas of the country you can't grow successful fruits or Veggies. For example in Texas it get's very hot in the summer so many people start their Tomatoes in March and April and harvest them by June and July. You will also need to know the last day of frost in your area. For example in the Midwest the last frost is in May so you cannot put plants in the soil till after that.
I hope this helps. Growing produce is a great learning experience and nothing tastes better than the food you have grown yourself.
I have a creed, I call them Cherism's, these are kind of the Tenants that I live by, For Example, 1. Never go to sleep on your anger. 2. Take life one day at a time. 3. Live every day as if it could be your last, because it just might be. 4. Learn something new everyday. 5. Feel pain, this helps confirm your alive.
I think you get the point. To answer your question, and having come from a long line of farmers, I would advice you to either buy or google an almanac, this is like the farms guide to planting, lunar cycles, wives tails. Back in the old days all farmers planted by the Farmer's Almanac. This thing has all kinds of great information for beginners. Secondly, I would recommend you, research in whatever manner floats your boat. Meaning, google, youtube, encyclopedia and figure out what you might want to grow, flowers, herbs, plants, veggies, then check to see what is right for your area.
Next, just do it! start small, refine your technique. Start with one pot or a raised bed. This doesn't even have to be inside, or it could be a patio garden. The great thing is, you can't mess up, there is no wrong answer - AWESOME Right! You will figure it all out along the way and based on your individual situation. As you get your technique you might find you need more space. Here is when you see what is available for free or little cost, such as a community garden or farmer's market. But most importantly, get your hands dirty, literally! Enjoy yourself and enjoy your life, find your joy and never let anyone still from you, because that is your power and your's alone.
I would highly recommend reaching out to a local farm and ask if you can shadow them or possibly even an internship.
How do you eat an Elephant? One bite at a time. Start with planting a small herb at home in a container and learn to take care of it. Then move on to an herb garden and then just continue to grow the garden as you grow. The question is "Are you growing a Garden or is the garden helping you grow?"
Start small take time perfecting your craft grow each year end the garden reap what you sow