As an experienced labor and delivery nurse who has worked in a multitude of facilities, the primary difference is the patient. As a L&D nurse, you are primarily responsible for taking care of the mother throughout the labor and delivery process. As a neonatal nurse, you are responsible for the care of the newborn at delivery and, if needed, in the NICU. In some facilities, the L&D nurse provides care or the mother during labor and delivery, as well as, care for the newborn at delivery and throughout recovery. This is usually only in the case of a term, healthy newborn. A neonatal nurse spends the majority of his/her time in the NICU providing care for those newborns who need care beyond the norm. As mentioned above, they may also be responsible for attending a delivery to provide initial care of the newborn during the recovery period.