If you are talking about becoming a neurologist, then you need an undergraduate degree, four years of medical school & four years of residency.
This depends on which country you live in and where you go to University.
In all countries, you need to first obtain an bachelor's degree in a field relevant to neuroscience. This might be a degree in biology or in neuroscience itself. Typically, completion of the undergraduate degree takes 3-4 years.
If you live in the U.S. you will then have to complete a Masters degree in neuroscience, which typically takes 2 years. In other countries, you have the option of doing a Master's degree or an honors research degree. An honors research degree is a 1 year research intensive program where you complete a research study and produce a thesis at the end.
Once you are finished with your Master's or honors degree, you can apply to PhD programs. In the U.S. a PhD typically takes 6 years to complete. In other countries, it can take 3-6 years.
If you want to go into neuroscience with a full doctorate, you should expect to study in University for at least 10-12 years.
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I think it depends if you want to specialize in certain areas. However, I think the rule of thumb is 4 years of undergraduate school, 4 years of medical school, and then 6 or 7 years of residency.
Thanks for the question. In theory, it's 4 years to the bachelor's degree and then another 4 to the PhD. Unfortunately, it often takes over 6 years to get a PhD in neuroscience in the US.
Hope this helps and good luck!