I got a degree in Mathematics and had this same question for a lot of my studying. I had no idea what a career in Math would look like outside of becoming a professor, until I started applying for jobs. I paired my Math degree with a minor in Computer science, and my career journey has consisted of plenty of critical, logical problem solving. I use math everyday with coding and data modelling. Of course each day is a bit different, but I use the language Python daily to solve problems with either statistics or data manipulation and modelling. Another common language for jobs related to a Math degree would be SQL, which is also used daily to find data you might need to analyze.
There are a lot of jobs that would love to hire someone with a math degree, as it requires a lot of logic and tough problem solving. There are jobs heavier on the math (Data Scientists, Data Analysts, Actuaries, etc), and some that require you to be a strong communicator to help make the connections between the business and the math (i.e. Business Analyst). A degree in Mathematics is very flexible for your future career journey!
I am a Mechanical Engineer and while in college I had the full range of math classes that all of the different types of Engineers take. However, depending upon which area of Engineering you go into you may use a lot of what you studied in college, or very little. A design engineer might use quite a bit, a sales, manufacturing or field engineer might use less. It depends on the job you have. You will never know how much of your math training you will use until you get into a specific field and select a specific job which is why there is a lot of math training in the STEM field. All will use their math background because, most importantly, math trains your mind to think logically and to focus on a problem. As a mechanical engineer I primarily used algebra, geometry and trigonometry.
For what I do, the vast majority is high-school algebraic manipulation and rearranging formulae. Exponential growth and decay is very important (half-lives in radioactive decay); and so the logarithm rules are very helpful. Bits of calculus is used for rates of change, but I almost never have to know how to actually work through the maths of the solution, it's usually just a case of plugging numbers into a Computer Algebra System or numerical PDE / finite-elements tool. I also use a lot of the statistics bits for uncertainty analysis (although very rarely need to look into the statistics in great depth, usually the simple rules of thumb like "sqrt(N) for Poisson counting" are sufficient. Regression and curve-fitting is always of use in the sciences, too.
That's probably the core of what I actually use. I'll sometimes encounter concepts from the more abstract maths topics in published papers I read, but it's not usually a case of needing to understand the ins-and-outs of what it is and how to solve and manipulate it; usually just having a rough idea of what a notation means and having an inkling of the concept behind it is enough to understand what is meant in enough detail to get what I need.
Piggybacking off of Joseph's answer, it really depends on the field of study or career you are going into. For example, engineers sometimes study past this concept called discrete math which is helpful for computer science and mechanical engineering, while artists can incorporate math into their art if they so please. Data scientists work with coding and math to understand statistics. Architects and sculpturists use math in different ways. Learning more about something is never bad; its just different information. I am sure that depending on whatever field you decide to go into, the curriculum will prepare you with the amount of math you will need to know for the career.
Here is a link that talks about Mathematics as a career and the skills used by mathematicians and people who use math a lot in their careers: https://www.learnhowtobecome.org/careers-in-mathematics/
If you are looking for something more: you can look at multidisciplinary and mathematics which can show you how different academic groups (super cool!) or search "(whatever you want, ex: art) and mathematics" in Google and see what comes up! Happy searching!
In my daily job as an engineer, I need to do calculations for analyzing large amount of data.
As a ordinary person, I use logical thinking to convince people. Do quick calculation when buying stuff.