Emily, food magazines such as Saveur, employ or contract food photographers and writers. What I suggest is looking at a food magazine, and in the first few pages, they list the names and titles of people who work for it. That way you can get a feel for some of the positions available. You can also Google forums for food photographers, join for free, and get tips from food photographers
I am a firm believer in having a side or full business of your own. Do you currently take pictures of food? Do you like to write? If so, you can increase you marketability as a freelancer or future employee by being able to review and take pictures of the food you review. Check out food bloggers in your area and online, and get a feel for what they do. For example, in Atlanta, there is the Atlanta Food Bloggers' Society.