I am not aware of a single test that can be taken as a substitute for an entire Bachelor's degree in Construction Management, or Engineering or Architecture for that matter. Its a little unclear whether you have started this education process or are planning to do so. Also, I am curious as to what research you may have been able to do on various universities in the area (or online) that offer these programs.
There are three fundamental elements to successful construction management - one is focused on satisfying the quality specifications put forth by the owner, the architect, engineers and other specialty consultants. The second is managing the flow -i.e., schedule - of work needed to assemble materials and install equipment at the site. The third element is cost.
Managing the technical specification aspects takes a lot of training in various engineered site and facility systems. Managing schedule and cost requires good math skills. And the math for estimating cost is a more direct calculation compared to the math associated with scheduling. Many people I know in our business find that scheduling software has become rather elaborate and complicated. I do not know your level of math skill - so it is difficult for me to recommend one over the other. A strategy that you might consider in the short run is gaining skill around managing cost through the estimating process - there seems to be a good level of need in the market for estimating skills.
Have you talked with any of your present employers on these types of options? You might do so, business activity is high and employers are generally excited when a team member strives to take on an area of knowledge and capability beyond their present assignment.