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What are the common things that geologists do?

I would like to understand in a more deeper term on what they do.

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Vamshee’s Answer

Geologists are specialized professionals who focus on studying, exploring, and researching various Earth processes, such as floods, earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, and climate changes, as well as investigating Earth's minerals and natural resources, such as oil, gas, metals, and minerals. Geologists typically work within industries such as oil and gas exploration, mining, environmental management, and the government sector, where they strive to understand and manage our planet's resources effectively.

To become a geologist, one must usually pursue an education in geology, earth science, or geophysics. However, a strong foundation in other fields of science, such as physics, chemistry, and biology, can also be beneficial, as geology is a multidisciplinary field. Field research, or fieldwork, is a crucial aspect of geology, but many subdisciplines also involve extensive laboratory and digitized work, such as analyzing geological samples and creating data sets from 2D and 3D mapping.

In their work, geologists often divide their time between outdoor fieldwork and indoor laboratory work. Some tasks they may perform include collecting samples of liquids, minerals, soils, and rocks; running analyses using specialized tools such as radiometers and seismometers to examine subsurface structures; and maintaining detailed records of their findings. By doing so, geologists can help enhance our understanding of Earth's materials, processes, and history.

As part of a larger group of scientists called geoscientists, geologists play a significant role in various sectors. They work in energy and mining, where they search for valuable natural resources like petroleum, natural gas, and precious and base metals. They also contribute to preventing and mitigating the damaging effects of natural hazards and disasters, such as earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, tsunamis, and landslides. Geologists' studies and research help inform the public about these events and develop strategies to reduce their impact on people and the environment.

Moreover, geologists are essential contributors to climate change discussions, as they possess valuable insights into the Earth's past and present climatic conditions. They provide important context for understanding human-induced changes and can help develop effective strategies to address environmental challenges in the future.

In conclusion, geologists play a vital role in understanding and managing Earth's resources, predicting and mitigating the consequences of natural disasters, and contributing to our knowledge of climate change. Their comprehensive work in diverse areas is critical to ensuring the sustainable use of the planet's resources and preserving the environment for future generations.
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Aaron’s Answer

This is already a great summary. The only thing I would add is, as far as industry goes, it would be a geotech that would handle things like faults, rock failure mechanics, etc. this could be a geologist especially in mining but most industries it would not. Geologists do continue to research faults, etc in academia and research labs but for engineering and liability purposes (PE sign off), many industries will not allow a geologist to handle that work.

I’ll list some example jobs you could fall into as a geologist since there’s already a good summary from someone else. These are jobs I have filled and/or my wife who is also a geologist.

-geotech in the mineral mining industry
-ore control geologist/Geometallurgist where you advise on the proper distribution and extraction of ore yielding rock based on other geologists maps and models
-modeling geologist where you make 2D or 3D models based on rock cores extracted from exploration
-mapping geologist where you go out and physically map what you see. In mining for example, you would go down into the mine and take measurements and Rick samples to determine if you were still on track and mining the right stuff.
-core logger which is grunt work and you work through rock cores extracted from the ground and log which rock came from which depth, etc
-mineralogy/thin section technician where you grind rock down into thin sections to be studied under microscope and return the results back
-hydrologist which is super broad but often includes either field work doing measurement on wells etc so you can model aquifers, etc on mod flow, GIS, etc.
-environmental engineer which often includes water management…again because of that hydrology side of geology
-exploration geologist where you work for a company or are contracted by a random person who thinks they got something good on their land and you go and map and make recommendations of where to drill down into the earth to get rock cores and find minerals (gold, oil, etc)

The list goes on. Lots of interesting jobs you can do.
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James Constantine’s Answer

Hey there, Jose!

Geologists are like detectives of the Earth. They dive deep into the study of our planet's structure, makeup, and the various processes it undergoes. Their work is incredibly important as it helps us understand Earth's past, predict potential natural disasters, and discover valuable resources. They explore everything from rocks, minerals, and fossils to landforms and how the solid Earth interacts with the hydrosphere, atmosphere, and biosphere.

When it comes to their day-to-day work, geologists often find themselves in the great outdoors. They conduct fieldwork, which means they head out to various geological formations to gather data and samples. This could take them to some pretty remote places like mountains, deserts, or even underwater! It's here they get to study rock formations, landforms, and geological processes up close and personal. This hands-on approach lets them document geological features, take measurements, and collect samples for more detailed analysis.

Back in the lab, geologists put their collected samples under the microscope. They use all sorts of cool techniques like microscopy, spectroscopy, chemical testing, and radiometric dating to study the physical and chemical properties of rocks and minerals. This helps them figure out what they're made of, how old they are, and where they came from. This information is key to understanding things like plate tectonics, volcanic activity, erosion patterns, and even climate change.

Geologists are also master map-makers. They create detailed maps that show the distribution of rocks, minerals, landforms, and other geological features. These maps are super important for understanding what's going on above and below the Earth's surface. They use tools like GPS, satellite imagery, aerial photography, and remote sensing techniques to gather data for their maps. By interpreting these maps and other data collected through fieldwork and lab analysis, geologists can piece together the story of an area's geological past.

Another important part of a geologist's job is assessing and managing natural hazards like earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, landslides, and tsunamis. They study the geological processes behind these hazards to understand why they happen, how often they occur, and what impact they could have. By looking at historical records, geological features, and monitoring data, geologists can identify areas at risk of specific hazards and provide valuable advice for land-use planning, infrastructure development, and disaster preparedness.

Geologists also play a big role in finding and extracting Earth's natural resources. They study where mineral deposits, oil and gas reservoirs, groundwater aquifers, and other valuable resources are formed and distributed. Using their knowledge of rocks, structures, and geological processes, they can pinpoint areas that are likely to be rich in resources. They carry out surveys, drill exploratory wells, and analyze samples to assess the quality and quantity of resources there. This information is vital for managing resources sustainably and driving economic development.

Lastly, geologists have a hand in assessing and managing the environment. They study how human activities impact Earth's ecosystems and help come up with strategies for sustainable land use. They look into things like soil erosion patterns, water quality issues, contamination sources, and the effects of climate change on natural systems. With this knowledge, they can suggest measures for protecting the environment and restoring damaged areas.

In a nutshell, geologists do a whole lot of things, from fieldwork, lab analysis, and mapping to interpreting data, assessing natural hazards, exploring resources, and assessing the environment. Their work is key to understanding Earth's past, predicting natural disasters, managing resources responsibly, and protecting our environment.

Here are the top 3 authoritative references I used to answer your question:
1. United States Geological Survey (USGS) - www.usgs.gov
2. Geological Society of America (GSA) - www.geosociety.org
3. American Geosciences Institute (AGI) - www.americangeosciences.org
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