Zahid gave a good list but the options always seem to be unlimited. Within these categories there are subcategories. For instance a residential architect can specialize in single family home, duplex homes, townhouses, apartment buildings, dormitories, historic residential project...
Commercial architects could specialize in office buildings, mercantile buildings professional service buildings, restaurant designs and others.
Interior designer is not really an "architect" but any architect is able to create interiors and of course every building has an interior!
Landscape architect again is not an architect this is a special program geared to just that particular field and could be tied into urban design as well.
Industrial work could be anything from warehouse design to jet fuel storage facilities and of course each building type has its uniqueness and the more familiar an architect is with that specific building will make that more valuable to the client.
All that being said a licensed architect is permitted to create any type of building he/she would like.
Many architects end up not even practicing architecture but pursue a world of design and that could be anything from furniture to toy design.
Architects are a very eclectic group of individuals and have skills of visualizing and grasping spatial concepts to solve solutions for everyone as well as insuring the health welfare and safety of the end users.
1. Architecture firms are usually organized by what sectors they work in, residential, retail, commercial, government, hospitality, institutional, education, etc. You'll see almost every firm organizer their website like this.
2. Not every architecture firm and thus architect performs every architect role of an entire project. For example, with big-name iconic projects, you'll often have a design architect that creates the concept, that's usually a famous, big-name, out-of-town architect, may not even be licensed. Then you have an architect of record, who is the company that does the work of actually making that concept a real design, does all the documents, and makes the project real. Then is other niches, you'll have architects that just do the construction administration phase of a project. Then on a related note, many architecture firms farm out portions of a project, like they may hire someone else to do code reviews, renderings, construction administration, energy modeling, etc. Often times product manufacturer reps will offer to do more technical aspects of a design. Those are all places architects can work other than a traditional architecture firm.
3. Then the business structure could also be "types of architects". At the smallest you have sole proprietors. That's an architect who works for themselves, no employees, often out of their houses, often doing single-family homes, duplexes, small townhouses; or small projects like tenant improvement (that's where a business takes over a space, often retail or office, and make it into their store or office. Then you have small businesses, where you have a small number of employees, that's very different from a more typical size architecture firm that has maybe 20-60 employees, which is very different from a large, multi-state or multi-national corporation that does business all over, in a wide variety of project types. There are pros to cons to each but one of the nice things about architecture is you have that choice. It's not like other businesses where you only have 1 or 2 of those options. Plus you can always fill niches as a freelance or independent contractor if you want to be like a sole proprietor but doe something a little different. That can be drafting, energy modeling, rendering, etc.
Here are 7 different types:
1- Residential Architect
2- Commercial Architect
3- Interior Designer
4- Green Design Architect
5- Landscape Architect
6- Urban Designer
7- Industrial Architect
Visit the link to know more about each type: https://www.arch2o.com/7-types-of-architects