In addition to the skills and work ethic veterans possess, employers can also receive tax breaks for hiring veterans. This is about $6000 for some vets, and about $12,000 under a Wounded Warrior Program. The govt. also recently started a program called HireVets in which it recognizes employers who meet certain criteria in employing veterans. To see a list of the employers recognized in 2018:
There are regular job fairs designed to recruit veterans into the workforce. I don't think any one branch is looked at differently than another by employers. As to officer vs. enlisted, I think that would depend on the type of position you are trying to get. But think of it this way: a person who enlists straight out of high school, and does one 4-year hitch, at the age of 22 is already well on their way to being a mature individual capable of being a functioning productive member of society. Think about 22 year old people who did not go in the military. Many of them are still a long ways from being "grown-up."